Machismo, Marianismo, and Negative Cognitive-Emotional Factors: Findings Through the Hispanic Community wellness Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary research


There clearly was research that is limited the original Hispanic male and feminine sex functions of machismo and marianismo, correspondingly, with regards to negative cognitions and feelings. Because of the vulnerability of Hispanics to negative cognitions and thoughts, it is critical to examine sociocultural correlates of psychological stress. Consequently, we examined associations of machismo and marianismo with negative cognitive-emotional factors (i.e., depression signs; cynical hostility; and trait anxiety and anger) into the Hispanic Community wellness Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary learn, a cross-sectional cohort research of sociocultural and psychosocial correlates of cardiometabolic wellness. Individuals were aged 18–74 years and self-identified as Hispanic of Central American, Cuban, Dominican, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Southern American, along with other Hispanic history (N = 4,426). Outcomes revealed that certain the different parts of machismo (conventional machismo) and marianismo (family members and religious pillar proportions) had been related to higher quantities of negative cognitions and feelings after adjusting for socio-demographic facets (p Keywords: sex roles, machismo, marianismo, negative cognitions/emotions

Negative cognitive-emotional facets such as for example despair, anxiety, anger, and hostility that is cynical adversely impact cardiometabolic wellness (Chida & Steptoe, 2009; minimal, Thurston, & Matthews, 2010; Raikkonen, Matthews, & Kuller, 2002; Watkins et al., 2013). Cardiometabolic health relates to an individual’s general danger for developing diabetic issues and cardiovascular disease (United states Diabetes Association, 2006). Negative cognitions and feelings have now been related to dangerous wellness actions and tend to be usually comorbid with chronic disease, such as for instance heart disease, diabetic issues, and cancer (Chapman, Perry, & Strine, 2005). Likewise, medical psychological problems characterized by negative affect such as for instance depression and anxiety happen connected with significant condition burden and impairment; major depressive disorder will be the cause that is leading of in the usa (U.S.) for people aged 15 to 44 years (World wellness Organization, 2008).

The sociocultural scripts of male and female sex part socialization in Hispanics cultures are described correspondingly as machismo and marianismo. The construct of machismo defines thinking and objectives concerning the part of males in culture; it is a collection of values, attitudes, and opinions about masculinity, or exactly exactly exactly what it really is become a guy. Machismo encompasses negative and positive facets of masculinity, including bravery, honor, dominance, aggression, sexism, sexual prowess, and reserved thoughts, among others (MirandГ©, 1977; Niemann, 2004). Machismo also incorporates attitudinal opinions that ponder over it befitting ladies to keep in conventional functions, and thus encourages dominance that is male females. It is essential to remember that a little but growing human anatomy of literary works ( ag e.g., Arciniega, Anderson, Tovar-Blank, & Tracey, 2008) is leaving the rigid depiction of machismo seen as a hypermasculity (referred to as conventional machismo) and it is encompassing an optimistic image of male sex role faculties, such as for instance chivalry, bravery, and family members provider characteristics (referred to as caballerismo). Analysis additionally shows that machismo may be impacted by socio-demographic facets, such as acculturation; that is, the recommendation of machismo is greater among people with reduced U.S. acculturation (Ojeda, Rosales, & Good, 2008). In research gender that is examining in reference to negative cognitive-emotional facets, recommendation of conventional male sex part philosophy happens to be related to harmful psychological wellness results, such as for instance greater despair, anxiety, and anger (Fragoso & Kashubeck, 2000; Good & Wood, 1995; Kopper & Epperson, 1996; Syzdek & Addis, 2010; open, Mok, McKenna, & Ogrodniczuk 2011). Nevertheless, a lot of the current literary works on male sex roles is acquired from college student and non-Hispanic White examples, and contains not necessarily considered social facets of sex roles. Consequently, the relationship involving the construct of machismo with negative cognitive-emotional facets when you look at the bigger population that is hispanic including ladies, stays ambiguous.


Individuals and Sampling Procedures

Data are derived from the Hispanic Community wellness Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) Sociocultural Ancillary learn (Gallo & Penedo et al., 2014). The HCHS/SOL is just a population-based, prospective cohort research designed observe chronic illness and associated risk and protective facets among Hispanics of Central United states, Cuban, Dominican, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Southern United states, as well as other Hispanic back ground (Lavange et al., 2010; Sorlie et al., 2010). A complete of 16,415 Hispanics aged 18–74 years, had been recruited through the Bronx, NY, Chicago, IL, Miami, FL, and hillcrest, CA, using a probability that is two-stage of home addresses. Census block groups had been arbitrarily chosen when you look at the defined field site areas with stratification predicated on Hispanic concentration and socio-economic status. Households were arbitrarily chosen in each sampled census block team. Eligible individuals (in other words., Hispanics individuals aged 18 to 74 years) had been chosen in each home and invited to engage. The HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary research is a cross-sectional study that is cohort of and psychosocial correlates of cardiometabolic health. The research features a representative sub-sample of this HCHS/SOL cohort except for lower involvement in certain greater SES strata (Gallo & Penedo et al., 2014). Individuals that has finished the HCHS/SOL standard exam had been invited to be involved in the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary research and had been recruited from all the four industry web web internet sites between 2010 and June 2011 (N = 5,312) february. Individuals finished a 1–2 hour interview-administered assessment battery that is sociocultural. Detailed information sampling that is regarding and procedures for both the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary research (Gallo & Penedo et al., 2014) plus the parent research happens to be formerly posted (Lavange et al., 2010; Sorlie et al., 2010). Both for studies, Institutional Review Board approval had been acquired at each participating web web site and all participants offered written consent that is informed.



The guts for Epidemiological Studies despair Scale (CES-D 10; Andresen, Malmgren, Carter, & Patrick, 1994) is just a commonly utilized measure to display for depression that is formerly validated for use in Latinos (Grzywacz, Hovey, Seligman, Arcury, & Quandt, 2006). The 10-item CES-D measures despair signs on the week that is past a 4-point scale from 0 (hardly ever or none associated with the time ‘less than a day’) to 3 (many or all the time ‘5–7 days’). Sample products include statements such as for instance, “I felt depressed” and “I had trouble maintaining my head on which I happened to be doing.” the product range of ratings in the CES-D 10 is 0 to 30, with greater ratings showing greater depression symptoms (Cronbach’s alpha coefficients of interior persistence for many study that is major are reported in dining dining Table 1 ).

Dining Dining Table 1

Cronbach’s Alpha Internal Consistency Coefficients for significant learn Measures on the list of whole Sample and also by Language Group

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